Confucius Temple was built firstly during the Yuan dynasty, when the city was only a small fisher village. The temple was destroyed in 1855 by the Taiping Rebellion because they hated the Confucius ideas, the temple was destroyed many times, including one during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960's, but it was rebuilt in 1999.
The Confucius philosophy is the base of the Chinese life for many centuries. He grew up in the time of a big chaos and violence in the country and created a philosophy to create harmony from family, to society and to the government. These ideas were the base of the imperial government. When the Jesuits arrived in the country they thought they could use this philosophy as a way to transform China in a Christian country, but the other Catholic orders decided this was impossible.
Curiously Confucianism isn't a religion in fact.
Here something he said once:
Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.